An independent report details a toxic pattern of bureaucratic paralysis among Olympic leaders who reacted slowly, if at all, after they knew Larry Nassar was suspected of molesting young gymnasts.
From the top office at the U.S. Olympic Committee to FBI bureaus in three cities to what was essentially an unchecked, rogue operation at the Karolyi Ranch in Texas, nobody stepped in quickly enough to stifle Nassar's crimes, the report concludes .
That delay ultimately gave Nassar more than a full year to abuse athletes after the first allegations surfaced.
The USOC swiftly fired sports performance chief Alan Ashley in the wake of Monday's release of the 233-page report from the law firm Ropes & Gray. One of its conclusions was that neither Ashley nor Scott Blackmun, who resigned in February as CEO of the USOC, elevated concerns about alleged abuse when they first learned of them from USA Gymnastics president Steve Penny in July 2015.
And an email from Penny notifying Blackmun and Ashley of Nassar's decision to step down from his volunteer position at USAG in September 2015 — after allegations had surfaced but before they'd become widely known — was deleted from both executives' accounts. The report suggests Blackmun was fearful his email system may have been vulnerable to Russian hacking.
"One thing we've learned from this experience is that these types of situations should be escalated," said Susanne Lyons, a board member who served as acting CEO earlier this year. "Transparency is important."
The report says the USOC, USAG, Michigan State and the FBI all failed to protect athletes. The failures led to a 14-month period — July 2015 to September 2016 — during which Nassar, while still employed at Michigan State, continued to molest young women.
"While Nassar bears ultimate responsibility for his decades-long abuse of girls and young women, he did not operate in a vacuum," the report says. "Instead, he acted within an ecosystem that facilitated his criminal acts."
Nassar is serving decades in prison on charges of child pornography and for molesting young women and girls under the guise of medical treatment; many of his accusers testified in heart-wrenching detail at his sentencing hearing in January.
The USOC commissioned the report shortly after the testimony. More than 100 people were interviewed, including some survivors of sexual abuse. But a sizable number of Nassar victims — including 180 being represented by attorney John Manly — refused to participate because Manly didn't believe the report was completely independent of the USOC.
"That being said, it is a stinging indictment of the highest levels of the leadership of the United States Olympic Committee for their role in the cover-up (of) the largest sex-abuse scandal in the history of sports," Manly said.
Among the conclusions:
— Blackmun didn't report the allegations to either the USOC board or anyone on his staff. When asked about the Nassar case by chief security officer Larry Buendorf, who had received word separately from Penny, Blackmun told Buendorf he was aware of the issue but did not seek further guidance. Blackmun, who voluntarily answered questions for the report, explained he understood the seriousness of the Nassar allegations but because they involved an "insider" — Nassar was well-respected and had worked with USAG for nearly 30 years — the case was "especially sensitive."
— While Penny repeatedly tried to get the FBI to investigate, one of his key objectives was to keep the allegations from spilling into the public, to avoid "sending shockwaves through the community," as he said in a conversation with an FBI agent. Because of that, very few inside USAG knew the extent of Nassar's crimes — a factor that curtailed efforts to control him.
— Despite Penny's contacts with law enforcement, the report concludes "the investigation appears to have languished ... for over seven months" in the FBI's Detroit office. USAG later took the allegations to the FBI's Los Angeles office, but not until the Indianapolis Star report detailing Nassar's abuse came out in September 2016 did that office take action. Meanwhile, the report includes details of Penny meeting with an FBI agent, offering him help in getting a security job at the USOC.
—The Texas training center where much of the abuse occurred was run by Bela and Martha Karolyi, whose penchant for churning out gold medalists earned them virtual carte blanche without having to answer to parents, individual coaches, or USAG and USOC authorities. The harsh regimen they imposed left athletes afraid to report injuries and almost completely beholden to Nassar, who "had broad latitude to commit his crimes, far from the gymnasts' parents and unimpeded by any effective child-protective measures," the report said.
The backdrop of it all was a U.S. Olympic bureaucracy that had grown reluctant to police the sports organizations it oversaw. When Blackmun took over the USOC, its relationships with the national governing bodies were at a low point. He spent years trying to repair the relationships and the USOC "chose to adopt a deferential, service-oriented approach" to NGBs, according to the report.
"In this governance model, the USOC exerted its broad statutory authority and monetary influence over individual sports primarily for the purpose of encouraging success at the Olympic Games, effectively outsourcing any decisions regarding on-the-ground child-protective practices to the NGBs," the report states.
That, in the minds of many of the survivors, was the most critical shortcoming: In short, the USOC valued medals over the athletes who won them.