The world of medicine has come a long way from the early days of humors and bleedings. Even more noteworthy is just how quickly doctors are making discoveries. The book “The Invention of Surgery: A History of Modern Medicine from the Renaissance to the Implant Revolution” details the journey of medicine, from leeches to antibiotics to open heart surgery. This history can also help explain the speed of medical advancement, including how a COVID-19 vaccine was developed in less than a year. Author Dr. David Schneider is an orthopedic surgeon based in Boulder.